Learn the key cities in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. See the locations of the four countries. Geography for kids learning KS1 and KS2 geography at Primary School.
Countries of the United Kingdom (UK)
There are four countries that make up the United Kingdom (UK) these are, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England, Scotland and Wales are all joined together on one island whereas Northern Ireland is together with Southern Ireland which is not part of the UK.
Flags of the United Kingdom
Each country of the UK has it’s own flag.
The United Kingdom also has it’s own flag. It is called the Union Jack. The Union Jack is made from joining the four flags together. It’s a union (means joined together) of the four counties.
England fact file
Capital city: London
National flag: St.George’s Cross
Patron Saint: St.George
National flower: Tudor rose
Population: 53.01 million
Highest peak: Scafell Pike 978 m
Longest river: (River Severn 354 km runs through Wales) River Thames 346 km
Scotland is the most northerly part of the UK. The capital city of Scotland is Edinburgh. You might have heard of Edinburgh Castle which is one of the most famous castles in the world. Edinburgh is also home to the Scottish Parliament who make decisions on how the country is run.
Like Edinburgh the city of Glasgow is in the south of Scotland where they have easy connections to the rest of the UK. In the north of Scotland you’ll find the Highlands. It’s more open here with large mountains, valleys and lakes. Here you will find the highest mountain in the UK, Ben Nevis. One of the deepest lakes is called Loch Ness which attracts many people each year all looking for the Loch Ness monster that they believe lives there.
Scotland fact file
Capital city: Edinburgh
National flag: The Saltire
Patron Saint: St.Andrew
National flower: Thistle
Population: 5.29 million
Highest peak: Ben Nevis 1,345 m
Longest river: River Tay 188 km
National Dress: Scottish kilts
Languages: English, Scots, Scottish Gaelic
Wales is located west of England. The capital city of Wales is Cardiff in the south of Wales. When Wales first joined the union is was ruled by England. Now Wales has some power to decide the running of the country. The government in Wales is called the Welsh Assembly. They can make decisions on health, education and the environment.
Wales has large mountains in the centre. This area is called Snowdonia and the largest mountain is called Snowdon.
Capital city: Cardiff
National Flag: Y Ddraig Goch, meaning red dragon
Patron Saint: St.David
National Flower: Daffodil
Population: 3.06 million
Highest peak: Snowdon 1,085 m
Longest river: River Severn 354 km
National Dress: Bedgown
Languages: English, Welsh
Ireland is made up of two counties, Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Republic of Ireland is in the south and is an independent country and therefore not part of the UK. Dublin is the capital of the Republic of Ireland and Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland.
Ireland is very green so people called Ireland the ‘Emerald Isle’. Lreland is very traditional. Irish dancing and Gaelic football is very popular.
Northern Ireland fact file
Capital city: Belfast
National flag: Saint Patrick’s Saltire
Patron Saint: St.Patrick
National flower: Flax Flower or Shamrock
Population: 1.81 million
Highest peak: Slieve Donard 850 m
Longest river: River Bann 129 km
Languages: English, Irish, Gaelic