Materials for kids learning at Primary School. Learn about solids, liquids, gases, rocks, soils and fossils for Key Stage 1, Year 1 & 2 children.

Changing materials

Bitesize - Changing materialsBBC Bitesize – What is a reaction?
Watch this fun video to find out what a reaction is.
Bitesize - Changing materialsBBC Bitesize – Changing materials
Learn about all the different ways materials change.

Properties of materials

Bitesize - Properties of materialsBBC Bitesize – How to identify materials
Watch this fun video to find out how to identify different materials.
Bitesize - Properties of materialsBBC Bitesize – Properties of materials
Learn more about why we use different materials with these videos.

Rocks, soils and fossils

Year 3

Hard Rocks

Rocks are all different. Hard Rocks are hard to break, you can not scratch them easily. If you polish hard rocks they become smooth and shiny. Hard rocks are used for roof tiles, building, worktops and tools in the stone age. Examples of hard rocks are flint, marble and granite.

Soft Rocks

Soft Rocks are easy to break and you can scratch them easily and they may even crumble. Chalk and limestone are soft rocks. Chalk is good for writing with as it crumbles easily and leaves marks.


Fossils are found in some rocks. These are the remains of living creatures from millions of years ago. Then the animal died it got covered in layers and layers of mud and sand. This squashed the animal and all the soft bits rotted away leaving an imprint on the rock. This is a fossil.

Bitesize - Rocks, soils and fossilsBBC Bitesize – Rocks, soils and fossils
Learn about the different rocks, soils and fossils with these videos.

Year 4

Impermeable and Permeable Rocks

Permeable rocks ALLOW water to soak through. Usually soft rocks let water soak through making them crumble and disappear. Try pouring water on a piece of chalk.

Impermeable rocks DO NOT allow water to soak through. Hard rocks let water run off them. That’s what makes them good for building and roofing.

Solids, liquids and gases

Bitesize - Solids, liquids and gasesBBC Bitesize – Solids, liquids and gases
Learn about the different solids, liquids and gases with these videos.